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Circa 500 . Cast iron was produced for the first time by the Chinese during the Zhou dynasty (1046-256 .). Prior to that, it had not been possible to raise the temperature of the ore sufficiently to melt the iron and the only available iron was wrought iron created by heating iron ore in a furnace with carbon as the reducing agent and hammering the resulting spongy iron output. Furnaces of the day could reach temperatures of about 1300°C which was enough to melt copper whose melting point is 1083°C but not enough to melt iron whose melting point is 1528°C. By a combination of the addition of phosphorus to the ore which reduced its melting point, the use of a bellows to pump air through the ore to aid the exothermic reduction process and the use of improved high temperature refractory bricks forming the walls of the furnace to withstand the heat, the Chinese were able to melt the iron and cast it into functional shapes ranging from tools and pots and pans to heavy load bearing constructional members as well as fine ornamental pieces.
Psychometric Assessment is used during the recruitment process in order to choose for the next step or for the final declaration, promotions, internal or external development, and team-spirit and also for counseling. Psychometric assessment plays a very big and vital role in the recruitment process. Using the psychometric assessment it is noticed if the assessment is helpful in any way to achieve the required objectives. In each case, the situation must be evaluated to see whether the tests used would be appropriate to help achieve the desired objectives. Though the tests are useful, there are a few situations when the tests are not to be used. Like, when there is a proof of a job performance it is worthless to put the same psychometric assessment for the candidate. Tests would be useful when used for recruiting the candidates who are entirely new to the organization. In the same way, the company may also avoid using some tests for some specific applications. Tests are used as the best decision makers. For an instance, to take a decision for a promotion of an employee, the previous tests results would be combined and compared with the present interview result and the decision would be taken depending on the records of the candidate considering all these factors to give a best detail if the candidate is suitable for that role. Using the result of psychometric assessment only should not be preferred.