Mayo's contributions to management theory were criticised by intellectual Daniel Bell . Writing in 1947, Bell criticised Mayo and other social scientists for "adjusting men to machines," rather than enlarging human capacity or human freedom.  Many, including Reinhard Bendix and Lloyd H. Fisher, criticized Mayo for generalizing his results of the Hawthorne studies. The two state that Mayo's research concerned small, isolated groups, and it was not clear that the conditions and supervision he achieved could have been replicated in large groups and factory settings.  His theories are also based upon the assumption that humans, by nature, want to cooperate and form groups, and he never allows for the possibility of José Ortega y Gasset 's idea of "the stranger," built upon the proposition that humans, by nature, are suspicious of others.  More recently, in 2003, James Hoopes criticised Mayo for "substituting therapy for democracy."  Re-analyses of the original Hawthorne data indicate that the quality of the research was poor.